Which Of The Following Descriptions Apply To Standard Type Motorcycles

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Which Of The Following Descriptions Apply To Standard Type Motorcycles – An application programming interface (API) is a way for two or more computer programs to interact with each other. It is a type of programming interface that provides services to other programs.

The document or standard that describes how to build or use such a connection or interface is called an API specification. A computer system conforming to this standard is said to implement or provide an API. The term API can refer to either a specification or an implementation.

Which Of The Following Descriptions Apply To Standard Type Motorcycles

Which Of The Following Descriptions Apply To Standard Type Motorcycles

Unlike a user interface, which connects a computer to a person, an application programming interface connects computers or software to each other. It is not intended for direct use by any person (user) other than the programmer who includes it in the software. An API often consists of various parts that act as tools or services available to the programmer. A program or programmer that uses one of these parts is said to call that part of the API. The calls that make up an API are also known as subroutines, methods, requests, or dpoints. The API specification defines these calls, that is, explains how they should be used or implemented.

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One of the goals of the API is to hide the internal details of how the system works, showing only the parts that the programmer finds useful, and keeping them unchanged if the internal details change later. An API can be created specifically for a particular pair of systems, or it can be a common standard that allows interoperability between many systems.

Which allows communication between computers connected to the Internet. There are also APIs for programming languages, software libraries, computer operating systems, and hardware. APIs originated in the 1940s, although the term itself first emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. Direct development in APIs has led to the rise in popularity of microservices, which are loosely coupled services accessible through public APIs.

When building applications, the API simplifies programming by abstracting away the underlying implementation and providing only the objects or actions that the developer needs. While an email GUI might provide a button for the user to walk through all the steps to receive and flag new emails, a file input/output API might provide a developer with a function that copies a file from one location to another other without requiring developer to understand file system operations behind sces.

A diagram from 1978 suggesting that the idea of ​​an API expands to be a general programming interface beyond just application programs.

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Originally, the term API described an interface only for user-facing programs known as application programs. This origin is still reflected in the name “application programming interface”. Today, the term has broadened to include service software and hardware interfaces.

The idea of ​​API is much older than the term itself. British computer scientists Maurice Wilks and David Wheeler worked on a modular software library in the 1940s for EDSAC, one of the first computers. The subroutines in this library were stored on punched tape, organized in a filing cabinet. This cabinet also contained what Wilkes and Wheeler called a “library catalog” with notes on each subroutine and how to include it in the program. Today, such a catalog would be called an API (or API specification, or API documentation) because it instructs the programmer how to use (or “call”) each subroutine he needs.

Wilkes and Wheeler’s 1951 book “Preparing Programs for an Electronic Digital Computer” contains the first published API specification. Joshua Bloch believes that Wilkes and Wheeler “recently invented” the API because it is more of a concept to be discovered rather than invented.

Which Of The Following Descriptions Apply To Standard Type Motorcycles

Although the people who coined the term API implemented software on the Univac 1108, the intent of their API was to enable programs that are independent of the hardware.

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The term “application program interface” (without the -ing suffix) was first mentioned in the paper “Data Structures and Methods for Remote Computer Graphics” presented at the 1968 AFIPS conference.

The authors of this article use the term to describe how a program—in this case, a graphics program—interacts with the rest of a computer system. The persistent application interface (consisting of Fortran subroutine calls) was created to free the programmer from handling graphics display device functions and to provide hardware independence in the event of a computer or display replacement.

The API became part of the ANSI/SPARC framework for database management systems. This framework handled the application programming interface separately from other interfaces, such as the query interface. Database researchers in the 1970s noticed that these different interfaces could be combined; a sufficiently rich application interface can support other interfaces.

In 1990, technologist Carl Malamud defined an API simply as “a set of services available to a programmer to perform specific tasks.”

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The API idea has been extended again with the use of external procedure calls and web APIs. As computer networks became common in the 1970s and 1980s, programmers wanted to access libraries located not only on their local computers, but also on computers located elsewhere. These external procedure calls were well supported, especially by the Java language. In the 1990s, with the spread of the Internet, standards such as CORBA, COM, and DCOM competed to become the most common way to provide API services.

Roy Fielding’s thesis “Architectural Styles and the Design of Networked Software Architectures” at the University of California, Irvine in 2000 described Representationary State Transfer (REST) ​​and described the idea of ​​a “network application programming interface”, which Fielding contrasted with. with the traditional “library-based”. API.

XML and JSON Web APIs have seen widespread commercial adoption since 2000 and continue into 2022. Web API is currently the most common meaning of the term API.

Which Of The Following Descriptions Apply To Standard Type Motorcycles

The Semantic Web, proposed by Tim Berners-Lee in 2001, included “semantic APIs” that transform an API into a distributed data operational interface rather than a software behavioral interface.

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Proprietary interfaces and agts have become more common than operational ones, but the idea of ​​an API as a data interface has stuck. Since web APIs are widely used to exchange data of all kinds on the Internet, API has become a broad term to describe much of the communication on the Internet.

An interface to a software library is one type of API. The API describes and prescribes “expected behavior” (the specification), while the library is the “actual implementation” of this set of rules.

One API can have multiple implementations (or none, since it is abstract) in the form of different libraries that use the same programming interface.

Separating an API from its implementation can allow programs written in one language to use a library written in another. For example, since Scala and Java compile to compatible bytecode, Scala developers can take advantage of any Java API.

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API usage may vary depending on the type of programming language involved. An API for a procedural language like Lua might consist primarily of basic routines for executing code, manipulating data, or handling errors, while an API for an object-oriented language like Java would provide the specification of classes and their class methods.

It says that “with enough API users, it doesn’t matter what you promise in the contract: all observable behavior of your system will depend on someone.” Meanwhile, several studies show that most applications that use the API try to use a small part of the API.

API usage really depends on the number of users as well as the popularity of the API.

Which Of The Following Descriptions Apply To Standard Type Motorcycles

Language bindings are also an API. By mapping the features and functionality of one language to an interface implemented in another language, a language binding allows a library or service written in one language to be used while being developed in another language.

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An API can also be connected to a programming framework: a framework can be based on multiple libraries that implement multiple APIs, but unlike normal API usage, access to the behavior built into the framework is conveyed by extending its content with new classes. inserted into the framework itself.

Also, the overall control flow of the program can get out of the control of the caller and end up in the hands of the framework through inversion of control or some similar mechanism.

POSIX, for example, provides a set of generic API specifications aimed at ensuring that an application written for one POSIX-compliant operating system can be compiled for another POSIX-compliant operating system.

Microsoft has shown a strong commitment to backwards-compatible APIs, particularly in the Windows API library (Win32), allowing older applications to run on newer versions of Windows using an executable-specific setting called “Compatibility Mode”.

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API differs from Application Binary Interface (ABI) in that API is based on source code, while ABI is based on binary code. For example, POSIX provides an API, while the Linux standard base provides an ABI.

External APIs allow developers to manage external resources using protocols, defined communication standards that allow different technologies to work together, regardless of language or platform. For example, connecting to a Java database.

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