Small Object Used With A Balance To Determine Mass – This article is about a scientific concept. For the main liturgical service in some Christian churches, see Liturgy (Mass). For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation).
Mass is an intrinsic property of a body. It was traditionally thought to be related to the amount of matter in the physical body before the discovery of atomic and particle physics. It was established that different atoms and different elementary particles, theoretically having the same amount of matter, nevertheless have different masses. Mass has several definitions in modern physics that are conceptually different but physically equivalent. Mass can be defined experimentally as a measure of a body’s inertia, meaning the resistance to acceleration (change in velocity) when a total force is applied.
Small Object Used With A Balance To Determine Mass
The basic SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, although mass is often determined by measuring the weight of an object using a spring balance rather than directly comparing the weight to known masses. Because of the lower gravity, an object on the Moon would weigh less than an object on Earth, but would have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, and mass is a property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of that force.
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There are several different forms that can be used to measure mass. Although some theorists suggest that some of these forms may be independent of each other,
The mass of an object determines its acceleration by the action of the applied force. Inertia and inertial mass describe this property of physical bodies on a qualitative and quantitative level, respectively. According to Newton’s second law of motion, if a force F acts on a body of fixed mass m, its acceleration a is equal to F/m. The mass of the body also determines the quality of its formation and the influence of the gravitational field. If the first body of mass m
Is at a distance r (cter mass to cter mass) from the second body of mass m
, the gravitational force Fg = GmAmB/r2 acts on each body, where G = 6.67× 10−11 N⋅kg−2⋅m2 is the “universal gravitational constant”. This is sometimes called gravitational mass.
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Repeated experiments since the 17th century have shown that inertial and gravitational masses are identical; Since 1915, this observation has been included a priori in the equivalence principle of relativity.
The International System of Units (SI) unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). The kilogram is equal to 1000 grams (g) and was first defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimeter of water at the melting point of ice. However, since the precise measurement of a cubic decimeter of water at a specified temperature and pressure was difficult, in 1889 the kilogram was redefined as the mass of a metal object, and thus became independent of the meter and the properties of water. There was a grave copper prototype in 1793, a platinum Kilogram des Archives in 1799, and an international platinum-iridium prototype kilogram (IPK) in 1889.
However, the mass of IPK and its national copies has been found to change over time. The redefinition of the kilogram and several other units came into force on 20 May 2019, following a final vote by the CGPM in November 2018.
The new definition uses only the constants of nature: the speed of light, the hyperfine frequency of cesium, Planck’s constant, and elementary charge.
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In physical science, one can conceptually distinguish at least seven different aspects of mass, or seven physical concepts that comprise the concept of mass.
All experiments to date have shown that these values of sev are proportional and in some cases equal, and this proportionality gives rise to the abstract concept of mass. There are several ways to measure or quickly determine mass:
In everyday usage, mass and “weight” are often used interchangeably. For example, a person’s weight may be 75 kg. In a constant gravitational field, the weight of an object is proportional to its mass, and using the same unit for both concepts is not problematic. But due to small differences in the strength of the Earth’s gravitational field at different locations, this difference becomes important for measurements with an accuracy higher than a few percent and in places far from the Earth’s surface, such as in space or on other planets. Conceptually, “mass” (measured in kilograms) refers to an intrinsic property of an object, while “weight” (measured in newtons) measures the object’s resistance to deviation from its current free-fall course, which may be affected by surrounding gravity. strength. Valley. No matter how strong the gravitational field, objects in free fall are weightless, although they still have mass.
A force known as “weight” is proportional to mass and acceleration in all situations where a mass is accelerated by free fall. For example, when a body is at rest in a gravitational field (rather than in free fall), it must be accelerated from the scale or surface of a planetary body such as the Earth or the Moon. This force prevents the object from falling freely. Weight is the opposing force under such conditions and is therefore determined by the acceleration of free fall. For example, a 50-kilogram object on Earth’s surface weighs 491 newtons, which means that 491 newtons are applied to prevent the object from falling freely. In contrast, on the surface of the moon, the same object still has a mass of 50 kilograms, but weighs only 81.5 newtons, since only 81.5 newtons are needed to keep the object from freefalling on the moon. Mathematically, on the Earth’s surface, the weight W of an object is related to its mass m by the formula W = mg, where g = 9.80665 m/s2 is the acceleration due to the Earth’s gravitational field (expressed as the acceleration experienced by the object in free fall).
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In other situations, such as when objects are subject to mechanical acceleration from forces other than planetary surface resistance, the gravitational force is proportional to the mass of the object multiplied by the total free-fall acceleration, called the intrinsic acceleration. Due to such mechanisms, in elevators, vehicles, centrifuges, etc. of the planets. In such cases, the generalized equation for the weight of an object W is related to its mass m by the equation W = –ma, where a is the object’s internal acceleration due to all forces except gravity. (Again, if gravity is the only force, such as when an object is in free fall, its weight will be zero.)
Although inertial mass, passive gravitational mass, and active gravitational mass are conceptually different, no experiment has shown a clear distinction between them. In classical mechanics, Newton’s third law implies that active and passive gravitational masses must always be identical (or at least proportional), but classical theory offers no convincing reason why gravitational mass must be equal to inertial mass. This is just an empirical fact.
Albert Einstein developed his general theory of relativity, starting with the assumption that inertial and passive gravitational masses are the same. This is known as the equivalence principle.
A special equivalence, often called the “Galilean equivalence principle” or the “weak equivalence principle”, has the most important result for freely falling objects. Assume that the object has inertial and gravitational masses, m and M, respectively. If the only force acting on the object comes from the gravitational field g, the force acting on the object is:
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This suggests that the ratio of gravitational to inertial mass of any object is equal to some constant K if and only if all objects fall at the same speed in a given gravitational field. This fomon is called the “free-fall universality”. Furthermore, the constant K can be taken as 1 after defining our units correctly.
The first experiments demonstrating the universality of free fall—according to scientific “folklore”—were conducted by Galileo, obtained by dropping objects from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. This is probably apocryphal: he allegedly experimented with balls rolling on nearly frictionless planes to slow down motion and increase timing accuracy. More and more precise experiments were carried out, such as those conducted by Laurent Etveche,
No deviation from universality, and hence from Galilean equivalence, has ever been found, at least up to 10
The universality of free fall applies only to systems in which the only acting force is gravity. All other forces, especially friction and air resistance, should be absent or at least negligible. For example, if a hammer and a feather are thrown from the same height in the air to the earth, it will take much longer for the feather to reach the ground.
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