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1916 Briggs and Stratton flyer. Originally an economy car experiment in the United States, the vehicle weighed just 135 pounds (61.2 kg) and was an adaptation of a small gasoline engine originally designed to power a bicycle.
A Car Averages 27 Miles Per Gallon
The fuel economy of a vehicle relates the distance traveled by the vehicle to the amount of fuel consumed. Consumption can be expressed in terms of the volume of fuel that must be covered per distance, or the distance traveled per unit volume of fuel consumed. Since vehicle fuel consumption is a significant factor in air pollution, and motor fuel imports can represent a significant part of a country’s foreign trade, many countries require fuel savings. Different methods are used to approximate the actual characteristics of the vehicle. The energy from the fuel is necessary to overcome the various losses (wind resistance, tire resistance, etc.) that are compensated when the vehicle is in motion, as well as to provide power to the vehicle’s systems, such as the ignition or the air-conditioning. Different strategies can be applied to reduce the losses in each of the transformations between the chemical energy of the fuel and the kinetic energy of the vehicle. Driver behavior can affect fuel economy; Maneuvers such as sudden acceleration and hard braking consume energy.
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Electric vehicles don’t burn fuel directly, so they don’t have fuel economy per se, but equivalency figures, such as miles per gallon of gasoline, have been created to compare them.
Usually expressed in liters per 100 kilometers (L/100 km), used in most European countries, China, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Irish law allows the use of miles per imperial gallon in conjunction with liters per 100 kilometres.
Canadian law requires fuel economy to be measured in both liters per 100 kilometers and miles per imperial gallon.
Liters per 100 kilometers may be used in conjunction with miles per imperial gallon in the UK. The window sticker on new American cars shows the vehicle’s fuel economy in US gallons per 100 miles, in addition to the traditional mpg figure.
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Miles per gallon (mpg) is commonly used in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada (along with l/100 km). Kilometers per liter (km/l) is more commonly used in other countries in the Americas, Asia, some parts of Africa, and Oceania. Levante uses km/20L, known as kilometers per tanak, a twenty-liter metal container. When using miles per gallon, you must determine the type of gallon: an imperial gallon is 4.54609 liters and a US gallon is 3.785 liters. When using a measure expressed as distance per unit of fuel, a higher number means more efficiency, while a lower number means less efficiency.
Although the thermal efficiency (mechanical production of chemical energy in the fuel) of oil engines has increased since the beginning of the automobile age, it is not the only factor in fuel economy. The design of the car as a whole and the mode of use affect fuel economy. Published fuel economy may vary between jurisdictions due to differences in test protocols.
One of the first studies to measure fuel economy in the United States was the Mobil Economy Run, which was conducted every year from 1936 (except during World War II) until 1968. It has been designed to provide fuel economy. really fuel efficient. numbers during coast-to-coast testing on real roads and normal road and weather conditions. The Mobil Oil Corporation sponsored it, and the United States Automobile Club (USAC) sanctioned and managed the race. In more specific studies, the average fuel economy for new passenger cars in the United States improved from 17 mpg (13.8 L/100 km) in 1978 to more than 22 mpg (10.7 L/100 km) in 1982.
Fuel economy for new 2020 model year cars, light trucks and SUVs in the United States was 25.4 mpg (9.3 L/100 km).
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2019 model year vehicles (such as electric vehicles) classified as “average” by the US EPA ranged from 12 to 56 mpg
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The fuel economy of a new vehicle does not immediately affect fleet average consumption: for example, the Australian fleet average in 2004 was 11.5 L/100 km (20.5 mpg).
Indicates greater fuel efficiency at higher speeds than previous studies; for example, some vehicles achieve better fuel economy at 100 km/h (62 mph) than at 70 km/h (43 mph),
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Though not the best fuel economy like the 1994 Oldsmobile Cutlass Ciera with the 2.2 L LN2 engine which has the best fuel economy at 90 km/h (56 mph) (8.1 L/100 km (29 mpg )
(11 l/100km)). The proportion of motorway drivers ranges from 4% in Ireland to 41% in the Netherlands.
When the 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limit imposed by the US National Top Speed Law was enforced from 1974 to 1995, there were complaints that fuel economy could decrease rather than increase. The 1997 Toyota Celica had better fuel efficiency at 65 mph (105 km/h) than 40 mph (65 km/h) (5.41 L/100 km (43.5 mpg)
(4.47 l/100 km)) at only 25 mph (40 km/h). Other vehicles tested were 1.4 to 20.2% more fuel efficient at 90 km/h (56 mph) compared to 105 km/h (65 mph). Its best economy was achieved at speeds between 40 and 90 km/h (25 and 56 mph) (see chart).
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Officials hoped that the 55 mph (89 km/h) limit, combined with a ban on decorative lighting, a ban on gasoline sales on Sundays, and a 15% cut in gasoline production, would reduce overall consumption. of gasoline at 200,000 barrels per day, a drop of 2.2%. compared to the annual level of gasoline consumption in 1973.
This was based in part on the belief that cars were most efficient between 40 and 50 mph (65 and 80 km/h), while trucks and buses were most efficient at 55 mph (89 km/h).
In 1998, the US Transportation Research Council noted that the 1974 National Maximum Speed Limit (NMSL) reduced fuel consumption by 0.2-1.0%.
Rural interstates, the highways most affected by NMSL, accounted for 9.5% of US vehicle miles in 1973,
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Since the total force opposing the movement of the vehicle (at constant speed) multiplied by the distance traveled by the vehicle represents the work that must be done by the vehicle’s engine, a study of fuel economy (the amount of energy consumed per unit of distance traveled ) requires a detailed analysis of the forces that oppose the motion of the car. In physical terms, force = the rate at which the amount of work done (energy delivered) varies with the distance traveled, or:
Note. The amount of work produced by the vehicle’s power source (the power supplied by the engine) will be exactly proportional to the amount of fuel energy consumed by the engine if the engine’s efficiency is the same regardless of power output, but this is not necessarily the case. case due to the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine.
For a car whose power source is a heat generator (an engine that uses heat to do useful work), the amount of fuel energy the vehicle consumes per unit distance (flat road) depends on:
Ideally, a car traveling at a constant speed on level ground in a vacuum with frictionless wheels could travel at any speed without consuming energy beyond that needed to accelerate the car. In the less than ideal case, any vehicle must expend energy to overcome road loading forces, which consist of aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and energy of inertia lost when the vehicle brakes with parking brakes. friction. With ideal regenerative braking, inertial energy could be fully recovered, but there are several options to reduce aerodynamic drag or rolling resistance, as well as optimizing car shape and tire design. The road load or energy required by the wheels can be calculated by evaluating the vehicle’s equation of motion during a specific driving cycle.
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A vehicle’s transmission must provide this minimum energy to move the vehicle, and it will lose a great deal of additional energy in the process of converting the energy from the fuel to work and transferring it to the wheels. In general, the sources of energy loss during vehicle movement can be summarized as follows:
The reduction in fuel efficiency due to electrical charging is most noticeable at low speeds because most electrical charges are constant, while electrical charging increases with speed. Therefore, at lower speeds, electric charges use a higher proportion of horsepower. Due to this proportional effect, hybrid cars have the greatest impact on fuel efficiency than electric loads.
Roller cam, low-friction coating on the piston skirt and optimized contact surface, e.g. Camshaft bearing and connecting rod.
Use of an electric motor for base power and an IC motor for assist and boost if necessary
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There are many aftermarket products that aim to increase fuel economy; many of these claims have been debunked. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency maintains a list
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